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MEDIEVAL and RENAISSANCE EUROPEAN SHIPS / In PEACE and WAR


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Classification of Medieval European Ships

1. Cogs developed from the ancient Celtic flat bottomed boat and did not have a keel. The earliest mention of a Cog is 948 AD near Amsterdam. High sided and heavy the Cog was an ideal cargo vessel. The stern rudder replaced the steering oar in the early 13th century. Add a 'castle' to the stern and/or bow and the Cog become a naval vessel ready for battle. Soldiers and marines used bows, arrows and catapults - later guns also - to soften up the crew on an enemy ship by firing from the cog's 'castle' before boarding.

3. Hulks had upturned stakes which terminated above the waterline. A keel carved from a great log was upturned at both stern and bow. The earliest known Hulk dates from the late 8th century at Utrecht.

4. Carracks were developed in the Mediterranean in the 15th century and had three or four masts and therefore the potential to be larger than any Cog or Hulk. They can be considered a fusion of the Cog, Hulk and Knarr, and a larger and more capable vessel was thereby created. Carracks had high rounded sterns with an aftcastel. Forecastles and bowsprits were also built on many Carracks. Carrack's were square rigged on the foremast, lateen rigged on the mizzenmast. They could handle rough seas, albeit rolling and pitching, and were therefore Europe's first long distance, ocean voyaging ship. The Spanish and Portuguese explored the world in Carracks in the 15th and 16th centuries. Columbus's flagship the Santa Maria was a small Carrack. Henry VIII's famous Mary Rose was a large Carrack built to exacting standards as a naval war ship.

5.Galleys derived from the Byzantine Dromon were to be found in the Medieval Mediterranean world where strong ocean winds do not always blow. With and without masts and sails, these galleys unlike their Classical prototypes were not multiple banked.


marine history - best links . EUROPE - MEDIEVAL and RENAISSANCE SHIPS . marine history - best links
* New Links 09.17.10 *
MEDIEVAL BOATS, SHIPS and LANDING PLACES
MARITIME COMMERCE . . . SHIPS of the LATER MIDDLE AGES
The COG 1 . . . The COG 2 . . . MEDIEVAL COG - Iconography
15th CENTURY COG - NETHERLANDS - in Dutch
Medieval Europe-Maritime History Books . NETHERLANDS - EXCAVATION of a COG-LIKE VESSEL - Masters Thesis / pdf document 312pp (26MB)
DIE BREMER KOGGE VON 1380 (1) - in German
DIE BREMER KOGGE VON 1380 (2) - excavation history / in German
CLINKER and CARVEL HULL DESIGN . . . . The GALLEY - 15th CENTURY . . . . GALLEON HISTORY
The CARRACK . . . .The FLUYT . . . . LATEEN RIG


Medieval Europe-Maritime History Books . BALTIC SEA - MEDIEVAL SHIPWRECKS - Masters Thesis / pdf document 215pp (13MB)
Medieval Europe-Maritime History Books . BALTIC STATES SHIPBUILDING - MEDIEVAL FORWARD - research article / pdf document
WATERWAYS and SHIPBUILDING IN NW RUSSIA in the MIDDLE AGES
KIEVAN RUS NAVY . . . NOVGOROD and MUSCOVY RUS - NAVY


HISTORY of the SCOTTISH GALLEY . . . SAILING a MEDIEVAL SCOTTISH GALLEY
REPLICA of a MEDIEVAL SCOTTISH GALLEY


NAVAL DEVELOPMENTS in the MIDDLE AGES - in Swedish

marine history - best links . EUROPE and ISLAM - MEDIEVAL and RENAISSANCE NAVAL WARFARE . medieval naval history - best links
* New Links 09.17.10 *
FRENCH MEDIEVAL ARMIES and NAVIES
SWEDEN-TIDIG HISTORIA 1300-1900 - in Swedish
Medieval Europe-Maritime History Books . VENETIAN NAVAL STRATEGY, 1000-1500 AD - research ms
Medieval Europe-Maritime History Books . FLEET OPERATIONS in the FIRST GENOESE WAR, 1264-1266 - research ms
NAVAL BATTLE OFF ACRE, 1291
BATTLE of SLUYS 1340 - 1 . . . . BATTLE of SLUYS 1340 - 2 - ships in close combat fr 14th ms
Medieval Europe-Maritime History Books . BATTLE of SLUYS 1340 - 3 - GOD, LEADERSHIP, FLEMINGS and ARCHERY / research ms
Medieval Europe-Maritime History Books . Les TRANSPORTS MARTIMES GENOIS vers la TERRE SAINT - research ms in French


MUSLIM WARSHIPS and NAVAL WARFARE
TURKISH NAVY - HISTORY
Medieval Europe-Maritime History Books . MILITARY INTELLIGENCE in ARABO-BYZANTINE NAVAL WARFARE - research ms
Medieval Europe-Maritime History Books . BATTLE of AIN GALUT, 1260 - MAMLUK - MONGOL Naval Warfare / research ms
Medieval Europe-Maritime History Books . MAMLUK NAVAL POLICY - Rotting Ships and Razed Harbors / research ms
Medieval Europe-Maritime History Books . NAVAL CONTRACT by the PAPACY AGAINST the TURKS, 1334 - research ms
Medieval Europe-Maritime History Books . OTTOMANS - GALLEYS, GALLEONS, PORTOLAN CHARTS and ISOLANI - research ms
Medieval Europe-Maritime History Books . ADRIATIC NAVAL HISTORICAL ICONOGRAPHY - in Italian
Medieval Europe-Maritime History Books . GUNPOWDER and GALLEYS - Changing Technology and Mediterranean Warfare at Sea in the 16th Century
OTTOMAN and NAVAL ECONOMICS and OPERATIONS - research ms


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