NAVTOOLS STORM TRACK Track an unlimited number of tropical storms (cyclones, typhoons, hurricanes). Estimate the risk of running into severe weather conditions for any intended route, and take timely action to avoid the storm.
NAVTOOLS ROUTE XP Complete route planning solution for coastal and ocean voyages. Calculate the most fuel-efficient route, taking into account expected weather conditions and vessels loading condition. Estimate required fuel for the intended voyage, and required engine rpm setting to arrive on schedule with minimal fuel consumption.
1. Cogs developed from the ancient
Celtic flat bottomed boat and did not have a keel. The earliest
mention of a Cog is 948 AD near Amsterdam. High sided and heavy
the Cog was an ideal cargo vessel. The stern rudder replaced the
steering oar in the early 13th century. Add a 'castle' to the
stern and/or bow and the Cog become a naval vessel ready for battle.
Soldiers and marines used bows, arrows and catapults - later
guns also - to soften up the crew on an enemy ship by firing from the cog's 'castle'
3. Hulks had upturned stakes which terminated above the waterline. A keel carved from a great log was upturned at both stern and bow. The earliest known Hulk dates from the late 8th century at Utrecht.
4. Carracks were developed in the Mediterranean in the 15th century and had three or four masts and therefore the potential to be larger than any Cog or Hulk. They can be considered a fusion of the Cog, Hulk and Knarr, and a larger and more capable vessel was thereby created. Carracks had high rounded sterns with an aftcastel. Forecastles and bowsprits were also built on many Carracks. Carrack's were square rigged on the foremast, lateen rigged on the mizzenmast. They could handle rough seas, albeit rolling and pitching, and were therefore Europe's first long distance, ocean voyaging ship. The Spanish and Portuguese explored the world in Carracks in the 15th and 16th centuries. Columbus's flagship the Santa Maria was a small Carrack. Henry VIII's famous Mary Rose was a large Carrack built to exacting standards as a naval war ship.
5.Galleys derived from the Byzantine Dromon were to be found in the Medieval Mediterranean world where strong ocean winds do not always blow. With and without masts and sails, these galleys unlike their Classical prototypes were not multiple banked.